Vehicle electrification is the process of powering the vehicle by electricity, replacing vehicle components that operate on a conventional energy source with components that operate on electricity. In general, vehicle electrification is focused on the powertrain driven by electricity and its auxiliary systems such as on-board and off-board charging systems, as well as wireless power transfer. Vehicle electrification also covers many other aspects of vehicle functionalities that exist in a conventional non-electric vehicle, such as electronic power-assisted steering, electronic stability program, electronic traction control, intelligent light system, smart electromagnetic suspension, all-wheel drive, airbag deployment system, and more.
The main driving factors for vehicle electrification are the reduction of pollutants, the development of new intelligent transport systems, and the eventual lack of availability of fossil fuels. The efficiency of conventional gasoline vehicles is only about 17% to 21%, whereas the efficiency of an electric motor is between 85% and 90%. In addition to an internal combustion engine (ICE), there are other mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic transfer power systems in a conventional vehicle. These mechanical, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems are bulky, heavy, and less efficient than an electrical system. Electrical systems are the most efficient as they can be monitored and communicated with more effectively than the others, which means they can be optimized and controlled for efficiency and performance. Therefore, a 100% electric vehicle (EV) will result in high efficiency and zero emissions of pollutants, thus reducing the overall carbon footprint, as well as attractive designs.